In the 1920s, the purification requirements for the production environment were first put forward in the gyroscope manufacturing process of the American aviation industry. A "control assembly area" has been set up in the manufacturing workshop and laboratory to supply a certain amount of filtered air. In the Korean War, the United States found that the main reason for the failure of electronic instruments was the dust, which contributed to the start of air purification technology.
In 1957, the launch of the first Sputnik in the former Soviet Union stimulated the accelerated development of aerospace industry in the United States. The Apollo moon landing program was formulated. The electronic control instruments and precision machining environment required purification, thus promoting the development of purification technology. A hundred level clean room was built, and the first clean room standard was born.
In 1970, the large-scale production of 1K bit integrated circuit started, which made the development of purification technology rapidly. In the 1980s, the production of large-scale and super large-scale integrated circuits made the air purification technology further developed, and the thinnest optical linewidth of integrated circuits reached 2-3um. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the United States and Japan developed a 0.1um class high efficiency air filter, which created conditions for the improvement of cleanliness.
In the 1990s, the production of VLSI has made new progress. The narrowest optical linewidth has developed from the micron level in the 1980s to the submicron level. By the end of the 20th century, it is required to reach 0.1-0.2um, and the integration degree is 1km. The higher the integration degree of integrated circuit, the smaller the photolithography linewidth required, the smaller the dust particle size required to be controlled, and the smaller the number of dust particles. Nowadays, it is very common to require 0.1um10 class cleanliness. In the future, the required cleanliness will be higher and the application field of clean room will be wider.
在2001年中国科协学术年会上，杨振宁教授指出，在今后三四十年，三个领域将成为科技发展的“火车头”：① 芯片的广泛应用。 ②医学与药物的高速发展。③ 生物工程。芯片需在工业洁净室中生产，药品需在生物洁净室中生产，医学研究、生物工程都离不开生物洁净室。对于有生物学危险的操作，需要在生物安全洁净室中进行。工业洁净室、生物洁净室及生物安全洁净室，都是应用空气净化技术创造的特殊的微环境。
In 2001, Professor Yang Zhenning pointed out that in the next 30 to 40 years, three fields will become the "locomotive" of scientific and Technological Development: ① the wide application of chips. ② The rapid development of medicine and medicine. ③ Bioengineering. Chips need to be produced in the industrial clean room, drugs need to be produced in the biological clean room, medical research and bioengineering are inseparable from the biological clean room. For operations with biological hazards, they need to be carried out in the biosafety clean room. Industrial clean room, biological clean room and biosafety clean room are all special micro environments created by air purification technology.
电子产业的飞速发展，将推动中国净化技术向高水平发展，而医学与药物的快速发展，必将使空气净化技术的应用更加广泛。中国在制药行业实施GMP（Good Manufacturing Prac-tice）认证制度以来，生物洁净室的兴建像雨后春笋，给净化技术产业带来的繁荣。近年来，三级甲等医院纷纷建造洁净手术部，使术后感染率降低10倍以上，从而可以少用或不用抗生素，减轻了抗生素对患者造成的伤害。这也将进一步拓宽净化技术的应用领域。
The rapid development of electronic industry will promote the development of China's purification technology to a high level, and the rapid development of medicine and medicine will make the application of air purification technology more extensive. Since the implementation of GMP (good manufacturing prac tice) certification system in the pharmaceutical industry in China, the construction of biological cleanrooms has mushroomed, bringing unprecedented prosperity to the purification technology industry. In recent years, the third class A hospitals have built clean operating departments, which can reduce the postoperative infection rate by more than 10 times, so that antibiotics can be used less or not, reducing the harm of antibiotics to patients. This will further expand the application of purification technology.
In 2003, SARS was rampant, which made people have a deep understanding of the risk of air borne virus. The most worthy reflection is the hospital building, which should not only pay attention to the shape and function of the building, but also the air quality in the building. It is understood that people eat 100 million rabbit thermobacilli to thank for infection, if inhaled 10-50, they will get fever. This is a wake-up call for medical staff who only pay attention to exposure to infection and despise aerosol borne respiratory tract infection. Because aerosol transmission is more explosive, low infection dose and large-scale, it is very dangerous. Therefore, modern hospital buildings should have air purification equipment to ensure the safety of doctors and patients. The hospital buildings that should be equipped with air purification system include: clean operation Department, biological treatment laboratory, isolation room for infectious patients, nutrient solution preparation center, preparation center, sterile supplies center, etc. This will bring new opportunities to the application of purification technology.
In the 21st century, the direct impact of bioengineering on human beings will exceed that of chips, and its development cannot be separated from air purification technology. For example, in bioengineering, there are potential risks in a considerable part of operations, especially in the transmission of new microbial species with unknown toxicity. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a building micro environment with biosafety. Air purification technology and biosafety knowledge can be used to build biosafety clean rooms to control the spread of this biologically dangerous pollution.
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